This post was inspired by the recent poll showing that 80% of Israeli Jews believe in God.
It seems to me that the Jewish world is undergoing a major divergence - with Jewish life outside of Israel (and whatever secular minority remains there) embracing a more liberal, open and cosmopolitan identity, which views Judaism primarily as a cultural heritage, and Jewish life within Israel embracing a more closed Orthodox ethno-religious identity. It is true that this process has been underway for quite some time - in that the Reform and Conservative movements have dominated Jewry in the Anglosphere and the developed world more generally for decades whereas they have been far less influential in Israel - but while we could say with some certainty that most Israelis were secular in any case, this divide did not seem so important.
However, in the words of a Ha'aretz article I recently read commenting on this poll, the truth is that "There is No Secular Majority." (I highly recommend the article for those of you who can read it - it is in Hebrew). As the Orthodox approach to Judaism continues its ascent in Israel, I suspect this rationalisation will quickly break apart. I believe that as the number of Orthodox Jews in Israel increases, as well as the number of non-Orthodox Jews which accept an illiberal ethno-religious Jewish identity under Orthodox influence, the chasm between the two "Jewish worlds" will grow, and may become irreconcilable. I do not think it unlikely that over the next 30 years we will see a major secular Jewish emigration from Israel as the public life of the country becomes more religious and illiberal, and subsequently a major schism between Israeli and world Jewry will take place as Israeli laws and policies become incompatible with the values and worldview of diaspora Jewry.