The results of the general situation were ugly. Jews were interned under Nazi rule in North Africa, and there were instances of anti-Jewish riots even without the presence of Germans. The May 1941 pogrom in Iraq was the ugly culmination of anti-Jewish legislation promulgated in the country that welcomed the Mufti of Jerusalem as a political refugee from the British.
Fervor swept the Arab world as their armies drove into Israel in what was promised to be a quick rout of the Jews. In the eyes of many, Judaism and Zionism had become synonymous, and as Zionists became the enemy, so did the Jew become the foe. It was time to leave. The centuries of productive lives for Jews in the Moslem world were coming to a bitter end. As the years went by, life became worse for those Jews who would not or could not leave. Gilbert gives all too many examples of Jews in places like Egypt, Syria and Iraq who were jailed without cause. Their property was often confiscated, and many were lucky if they were released alive from prison.
Gilbert is steadfast in his conclusion that Jews from "Ishmael's House" are no less refugees than Arabs who perpetuate their status through such mechanisms as UNWRA. He adds one point which all too many Arabs chose to ignore --- the Arab countries have lost all of the contributions that Jewish exiles have made to literature, science, and numerous other fields.