UNSCOM Accomplishments and Unresolved Issues
Overall Status: Nuclear: IAEA reports Iraq's nuclear program dismantled and rendered harmless (April and October 1998 reports)
STATUS: Questions remain about nuclear design drawings, documents, and fate of some equipment
Nuclear Facilities: Dismantled by IAEA
Nuclear Fuel: All removed by IAEA
Suppliers:IAEA says it has assembled a picture of Iraq's nuclear suppliers
STATUS: Most of 170 technical reports from a German supplier unaccounted for
Overall Status Chemical: Declared munitions, chemical precursors destroyed by UNSCOM
STATUS:Most outstanding questions involve Iraqi production of VX nerve agent
VX nerve agent: Iraq admits producing 4 tons
STATUS:No verification of the fate of the agent
VX precursor chemicals: 191 tons verified as destroyed
STATUS:About 600 tons unaccounted for, enough to make 200 tons of VX
Other chemical munitions: 38,500 found and destroyed by UNSCOM
STATUS: Fate of 31,600 munitions, 550 mustard shells, and 107,000 chemical casings unaccounted for
Chemical Weapons Agents: 690 tons found and destroyed by UNSCOM
STATUS: 3,000 tons unaccounted for
Precursor Chemicals: 3,000 tons found and destroyed by UNSCOM
STATUS: 4,000 tons unaccounted for
Chemical Monitoring: 170 sites monitored during UNSCOM tenure
STATUS: No monitoring since UNSCOM departure
Biological Program: UNSCOM has obtained Iraqi admissions that it had a biological warfare program
STATUS: UNSCOM says most work remains in this category; no biological weapons found by UNSCOM
Biological Agents: Iraq admitted producing 19,000 liters of botulinum; 8,400 liters of anthrax; and 2,000 liters of aflatoxin and clostridium
STATUS: No verification of destruction or amounts produced
Munitions: Iraq admits loading biological weapons onto 157 bombs
STATUS: No verification of bomb destruction; fate of additional 500 parachute- dropped bombs unknown
INSPECTION TO PEACE
1997 - Increasing attempts by Iraq in 1997 to impede U.N. weapons inspections and to exclude U.S. personnel from UNSCOM teams prompted demands by the U.N. Security Council that Iraq cease its interference or face further sanctions.
January 1998 - tensions mounted again as Iraq once more barred U.S.-led teams from conducting inspections and declared several â€œsensitive sitesâ€ off limits to U.N. inspectors. After a month of intensive diplomacy and a continuing build-up of U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf region, the Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister and the U.N. Secretary General signed an agreement with the following provisions:
1) Reconfirmation by Iraq that it accepts relevant U.N. resolutions
2) Commitment of U.N. member states to â€œrespect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraqâ€
3) â€œImmediate, unconditional, and unrestricted accessâ€ by UNSCOM and IAEA within Iraq, with respect for Iraqi concerns relating to â€œnational security, sovereignty, and dignity
4) Special procedures to apply to inspections at eight â€œpresidential sitesâ€ defined in an annex to the agreement
5) Efforts to accelerate the inspection process, and an undertaking by the Secretary General to bring to U.N. Security Council members the concerns of Iraq over economic sanctions.
March 1998 the U.N. Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1154, that Iraq must comply with its obligations, and warned that any violation of these terms or other Security Council resolutions â€œwould have the severest consequences for Iraq.â€
August 1998: Iraq began to challenge U.N. operations once more. On August 5, Iraq announced that it would no longer allow UNSCOM to inspect new facilities, and followed with a ban on all remaining UNSCOM activities on October 31.
November 1998 UN Security Coucil passed Resolution 1205 of November 5, which demanded that Iraq rescind its bans on U.N. weapons inspection activities and resume full cooperation with UNSCOM
As U.S. forces were on the verge of conducting air and missile strikes against Iraq on November 14, the Clinton Administration delayed them for 24 hours upon learning that Iraq had agreed to resume cooperation with UNSCOM. After further negotiations, Iraq agreed in a letter to the Security Council on November 15 to provide unconditional cooperation to UNSCOM and rescind its ban on UNSCOM activities.
Clinton lists five conditions Iraq must fulfill to meet the criteria of unconditional cooperation:
1) Resolution of all outstanding issues raised by UNSCOM and the IAEA.
2) Unfettered access for inspectors with no restrictions, consistent with the February 23 memorandum signed by Iraq.
3) Turnover by Iraq of all relevant documents.
4) Acceptance by Iraq of all U.N. resolutions related to mass destructions weapons.
5) No interference with the independence or professional expertise of weapons inspectors.
December 1998: Despite its pledges on November 14-15, Iraq began to impede the work of U.N. weapons inspectors once more, according to statements by UNSCOM Chief Butler on December 8. On December 15, Butler submitted a report in which he concluded that â€œIraq did not provide the full cooperation it promised on 14 November 1998â€ and â€œinitiated new forms of restrictions upon the Commissionâ€™s work.â€ On December 15, Butler withdrew remaining UNSCOM inspectors from Iraq, saying that they could no longer perform their mission.
1999-2002: I guess this was the time Iraq was "voluntarily" destroying it's weapons in violation
Bush: It's time for Saddam to comply or for Saddam go
Saddam: FU George Bush
US Military Forces buildup in the Persian Gulf Region
Iraq: Wait wait wait...we are ready to comply and we welcome inspectors in with open arms.
November 2002: Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Prague on 21 November 2002:
We deplore Iraq's failure to comply fully with its obligations which were imposed as a necessary step to restore international peace and security and we recall that the Security Council has decided in its resolution to afford Iraq a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations under relevant resolutions of the Council.
NATO Allies stand united in their commitment to take effective action to assist and support the efforts of the UN to ensure full and immediate compliance by Iraq, without conditions or restrictions, with UNSCR 1441. We recall that the Security Council in this resolution has warned Iraq that it will face serious consequences as a result of its continued violation of its obligations.
Blix: Iraq is not fully cooperating
Iraq: We are in full compliance
Blix: What about the weapons you can't account for?
Iraq: We destroyed them...we swear
UN Inspector: Well what are these here?
Iraq: Ohh except for those...those somehow got lost in the shuffle...but THATS IT...we swear...we are in full compliance and are fully cooperating!!!!
France and Germany: Well we really didn't mean "serious" consequences when we issued that NATO statement in November.
Saddam Today: I promise not to import any more illegal items and not pursue WMD....not that we have in the last few years...But I will make you that promise today
Blix: Iraq is still not complying or fully cooperating...but they are getting a little better
France and Germany: That Saddam...What a standup guy...damn American Cowboy Warmongerers